Geographical Location of Georgia

Georgia is a country consisting of many mountains. To the north, the Greater Caucasus mountain range forms the border with Russia, and to the south, the Lesser Caucasus mountain range forms the border with Turkey and Armenia. In the center of the country, the Surami Highlands connect mountain ranges. To the west is a lower, flat landscape extending towards the Black Sea. The highest mountain Shkhara is located in the Greater Caucasus and reaches a height of 5068 m above sea level. The climate varies greatly depending on the proximity to the Black Sea and the elevation difference. In the west, a subtropical climate prevails with hot summers and mild rainy winters. In the east, the climate is continental with little rainfall, cool winters and hot summers. The biggest environmental problems in Georgia are regional problems of pollution and deforestation. Much of the natural environment of the western lowland landscape has disappeared due to agriculture and urbanization. Much of the forest that previously covered this area has now disappeared. Industrial emissions have led to severe air and water pollution in and around major cities. The use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture is also causing soil degradation in many areas.

Brief History of Georgia

Groups of Georgians have lived in Georgia for at least 3,000 years. Due to its location between Central Asia and Europe, the area has been subject to invasion and control by various kingdoms and peoples. It was only around 1100 that the territory was united into a kingdom, and the golden age of Georgia began. The culture flourished and the country grew in size. When Mongol warriors invaded in the 13th century, Georgia was divided into many petty kingdoms before 300 years of Turkish occupation followed. In the 18th century, the country united again into a kingdom. Hoping to get protection, the country entered into an alliance with Russia. In 1801, this area was included in the Russian province. When the Russian Tsarist Empire collapsed in 1917, Georgia became independent again. However, independence was short-lived, and in 1921 the country was occupied by the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Georgia became an independent republic.

Society and Politics of Georgia

Georgia is a parliamentary republic where the president is the head of state and the prime minister leads the government. The Government and the Prime Minister are appointed by Parliament and are responsible to it. Parliament is the legislative body, which consists of 150 members. Following a constitutional amendment in 2013, most of the president's powers were transferred to the government. The president will be able to manage domestic and foreign policy, initiate legislative changes, or hold a leadership position in a political party. Georgia is closely linked to the US and Western Europe and wants to join both NATO and the EU. Society bears the imprint of many years of unstable political leadership, wars and interethnic disagreements. The social security system is poorly developed, and benefits such as pensions, health care, education or unemployment benefits are often insufficient and unpredictable.

Economy and Trade of Georgia

The collapse of the Soviet Union led to economic collapse in Georgia. Later, internal conflicts also led to an aggravation of the economic crisis. The industry struggled with high energy prices after Soviet subsidies ran out. The most important industrial products are wine, metal products, machinery and chemicals. The mild climate of Western Georgia has made it a historically important agricultural country. The country produces a lot of fruits, tea, grapes, corn and wheat. The most important exports are iron and metal products, aircraft, tea and citrus fruits. International aid has helped the economy emerge from its worst crisis since the fall of the Soviet Union and the war with Russia. Political measures have helped to reduce corruption, and poverty has been sharply reduced. However, about 21 percent of the population still lives below the national poverty line. Poverty is most prevalent in and around cities, where the population is unable to farm for their own consumption.

Georgian Cuisine and Culinary Traditions of Georgia

Georgian cuisine is rich in recipes for meat, vegetables, poultry and an abundance of herbs that give Georgian dishes a spicy-sweet and spicy taste. During the period when Georgia was part of the now defunct country, Georgian cuisine personified Caucasian cuisine for everyone, although many Caucasian recipes are not Georgian, but belong to Armenian, Azerbaijani, Turkish and other national cuisines of this region, for example, the same barbecue, which is prepared in many Asian countries. Typical dishes of Georgian cuisine are kharcho, khachapuri, lobio, tobacco chicken, khinkali, chakhokhbili, satsivi and many other Georgian recipes. Georgian sauces tkemali and satsebeli, red and green adjika, as well as a mixture of spices Khmeli-suneli and Svan salt are known far beyond the borders of Georgia. Georgian dishes are very diverse, tasty and mostly healthy, and if you add a variety of Georgian wines here, then it will be very difficult to compete with such national cuisine.

Georgia flag
Georgia coat of arms

Basic Information About Georgia

  • Full name - Georgia
  • Capital - Tbilisi
  • Language - Georgian
  • Population - 3 979 773
  • Form of government - parliamentary republic
  • Area - 69,700 km2
  • Currency - larry
  • National Day - May 26