Geographical Location of Guyana

About 80 percent of Guyana is covered in tropical forests with particularly high biodiversity. Almost 25 percent of the world's rainforests are located on the Guyana Plateau in the northeastern Amazon. The Guyana Plateau is divided between the countries of Brazil, Suriname, French Guiana and Guyana. The nature of the Atlantic coast in the north is characterized by a narrow and fertile coastal strip, and in the southwest - by dry savannah. The climate is tropical, hot all year round and there is a lot of rainfall. On the coast, the rainy season lasts from April to August and from December to January. Inland, it rains most often from May to September.

Due to the large number of rivers and heavy rainfall, Guyana faces a constant threat of flooding. In addition, tropical deforestation contributes to increased flooding and flooding, as bare and cultivated land is more easily washed away or inundated than forested areas. Deforestation also threatens the region's rich flora and fauna. Several organizations and countries are actively working to save Guyana's rainforests. The country also has problems with water pollution from sewage and chemicals.

Brief History of Guyana

The territory of Guyana, which today consists of three countries (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), has long been inhabited by indigenous peoples such as the Warao and Arawak. Most lived as nomads until the area was colonized by the Dutch Empire in the 16th century. Indigenous peoples eventually became known as Indians. The territory of Guiana remained a Dutch colony throughout the 17th century before being divided between the Netherlands (Dutch Guiana; now Suriname), France (French Guiana), and, in the 19th century, Britain (Guyana).

Colonial powers transported many slaves from Africa to Guyana. They worked on plantations and grew coffee, cotton and sugar. When the British abolished slavery in 1834, they began importing workers from India to Guyana. The country has long been characterized by social tensions between people from India and West Africa.

Guyana became an independent state in 1966 and was ruled by various socialist governments until 1992. Politically, the country had close ties with the Soviet Union and other communist states until the 1980s. During these years, Guyana had a planned economy, which meant government control and ownership of the means of production, companies, goods and services. This system led to economic collapse in the 1980s, and so the country moved to a market economy. At the same time, the country severed close ties with other communist countries and opened up to more democratic elections.

Society and Politics of Guyana

Guyana is a republic where the president is the head of state and government. The president is appointed by the popularly elected national assembly, which has legislative power in the country. The president himself chooses the prime minister and the government, and together they constitute the executive branch of the country. Guyana is a democratic country where fair elections are held regularly and their results are respected, but freedom of the press and expression is sometimes limited.

Since independence, Guyana's politics have been characterized by ethnic tensions, oppression, corruption, and border conflicts with neighboring countries. The unrest led to half a million Guyanese emigrating to other countries.

Guyanese society is characterized by strong social inequalities. The dividing line is between the often poorer Indian descendants living in rural areas and the wealthier African descendants living in cities. Among other things, health care system, schools, infrastructure and other social benefits are less developed in rural areas where the largest number of Indians live, while in leadership positions in society such as the police, army and politics.

Economy and Trade of Guyana

Despite its abundance of natural resources, Guyana is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The economy is heavily dependent on the export of bauxite, gold and agricultural products such as sugar and rice. However, poorly developed infrastructure made the export of natural resources unprofitable. The country has also accumulated a large external debt thanks to loans and financial support from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The transition from a planned economy to a market economy in the 1990s led to economic growth. External debt then decreased significantly, but it is still a burden on the country's economy.

More than a third of the population lives in poverty, with about 14 percent living in extreme poverty. Large social and political inequalities have made the country vulnerable to corruption and crime, and the country is a transit station for drug and weapons smuggling from South America to Europe and the United States. This has contributed to Guyana having one of the highest murder rates in South America.

Large oil reserves were discovered in 2015, and the country sold its first oil in early 2020. Guyana then became the fastest growing economy in the world, and oil revenues radically changed the country's economic conditions.

Flag of Guyana
Coat of Arms of Guyana

Basic Information About Guyana

  • Full name - Cooperative Republic of Guyana
  • Capital - Georgetown
  • Language - English
  • Population - 790,329
  • Form of government - republic
  • Area - 214,970 km2
  • Currency - Guyanese dollar
  • National Day - February 23