Geographic Location of the USA
The USA is the fourth largest country in the world by area. The landscape of the United States of America is very diverse. In the east, the plains stretch from the Atlantic to the wooded hills. The Mississippi-Missouri River flows through the country and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Large plains with agricultural land characterize the landscape westward towards the Rocky Mountains. Areas west of the mountain range are dominated by deserts and rock formations such as the Grand Canyon. Denali (formerly Mount McKinley), at 6,194 meters above sea level, is the country's highest mountain and is located in Alaska to the north. Most of the US has a temperate climate, but Hawaii and Florida have a tropical climate, while Alaska has a polar climate. The use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides pollutes groundwater, and in some places authorities must regulate water consumption. The state of California has experienced a drought since 2011, resulting in devastating wildfires and water shortages for households and agriculture. Other environmental problems are deforestation and air pollution. The US is among the countries in the world that emit the most CO2. Former President Donald Trump withdrew the United States from the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement is an agreement that aims to prevent the Earth's temperature from rising by more than two degrees. President Biden again signed an agreement with the country, and thus the hope of achieving the goal was strengthened.
Brief History of the United States of America
The indigenous people of North America originally come from Eurasia, and settled the country several thousand years ago. Until the country was colonized by Europeans in the 16th century, the indigenous people lived in several hundred different tribal communities. When Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, he thought he was in India, and so the indigenous people began to be called Indians. The country has been colonized by Europe since the 16th century, and the colonial powers also imported slaves from the African continent. Thus, the country was and remains a very multicultural society, made up of people from different parts of the world. During and after colonization, the indigenous population was harassed, displaced and killed. There are 574 federally recognized Native tribes in the United States today, including 229 tribes in Alaska. In 1776, 13 colonies on the Atlantic coast seceded from Great Britain, leading to the formation of the United States. In 1861 civil war broke out between the northern and southern states. The southern states capitulated in 1865, which led to the abolition of slavery. The US Civil War was important to strategy and weapons development, and World War I cemented the US's reputation as a military power. The United States participated on the Allied side during World War II. After the war, the country became the first permanent member of the UN Security Council. In the post-war period, the United States became the most powerful nation in the world. The country provided political and financial support to countries that were supposed to recover in Western Europe. The goal was to stop the communist influence of the Soviet Union. In parallel with this, there was an arms race. This power struggle is called the Cold War. This was expressed in the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the Caribbean crisis and nuclear weapons. During the Bush administration in 2001, the United States experienced one of the most talked about terrorist attacks in the world. After that, the United States deployed military forces in several countries in the Middle East and began an aggressive foreign policy with the common goal of fighting terrorists.
Society and Politics of USA
The USA is a republic consisting of 50 states. Political responsibility is shared between the federal government and the states. The responsibility of the federal authorities (president, government, etc.) includes foreign policy, defense, civil rights, customs and post office, the central bank, as well as the regulation of trade between the federal states. The responsibility of the states is primarily to make and enforce laws. Laws and regulations vary greatly between states. The 1787 constitution is still in effect, but with some additional provisions. Each of the 50 states also has its own legal system. UN experts called on US authorities to combat persistent systemic racism and racial bias, including discrimination against women, men and children of African descent. The US Congress consists of two chambers - the Senate and the House of Representatives. The president is both head of government and head of the military, and can veto bills in Congress. Theoretically, the United States has a multi-party system, but in practice, two parties dominate - Democrats and Republicans. During the presidency of Donald Trump, the political climate has changed dramatically. In 2021, Democrat Joe Biden became the new president. Biden vowed to work to reduce air emissions, strengthen the rights of minorities, and improve the healthcare system. The United States is the country in the world with the highest number of COVID-19 related deaths. Biden introduced stricter measures early in his term to deal with the pandemic. By-elections are held in the United States in early November. There, representatives are elected to Congress, which is the national assembly in the United States. By-elections are held every four years between presidential elections. If the Republicans win a majority in one or both houses of Congress, they will be able to block much of the president's policies.
Economy and Trade of the United States of America
The United States is the world's leading economic power. The free market system traditionally characterizes the country's economy. It is emphasized that the authorities should contribute to the normal functioning of the business community without interfering too much. Due to differences in location, natural resources, climate, transportation, and communications, the US has a diverse business structure, with large differences in different land areas. The service sector makes up the bulk of the gross domestic product, followed by industry, mining and construction. The country is far ahead in research and development. Foreign trade is very important, and in recent years the focus of trade has shifted from Europe to Asia. The US has been a driving force in the creation of the WTO free trade organization and free trade agreements such as NAFTA. The financial crisis of 2008 led to an economic downturn. GDP fell, unemployment rose, and the government ran a large deficit. In subsequent years, economic growth was slow, and it was not until 2014 that unemployment fell and consumption increased, so that the economy improved markedly. Nevertheless, the country has a large public debt and a huge budget deficit, which affects both the economy and politics. Unemployment is now on the rise again, this time as a result of the corona pandemic.
American Cuisine and American Culinary Traditions
American cuisine, like the United States of America itself, is very diverse. The variety of recipes for dishes and the development of American cuisine were influenced by many factors at once. This is the raw material base of cooking, and the huge size of the United States, and the many peoples that inhabit the United States. The products used in the recipes of American cuisine are determined by the plants and animals grown in this country. In American cuisine, corn and beans, beef and sea fish, various seafood, potatoes and other local products are widely used. Each of the nationalities that make up the people of the United States has contributed to the development of American cuisine by sharing their national recipes. One typical example is pizza, which has become a traditional American dish, although Italy is considered to be its homeland. The large size of the territories in which the United States is located also has an impact on American cuisine - the culinary traditions of the northern and southern states differ significantly, in the south of the United States a specific form of American cuisine has even formed, which arose under the influence of the culinary traditions of Mexico - Tex-Mex, or Texas-Mexican cuisine. Typical American dishes are peanut butter, chili con carne, dutch baby, jambalaya, tacos, bagel, barbecue, steak, hamburger, mashed potatoes, banana bread, corn dog, cornbread, ice water, corn chowder, corn flakes, Waldorf salad, Caesar salad, Tabasco sauce, pecan pie, pumpkin pie, key lime pie, brownies, donuts, muffin, cheesecake, marshmallows, maple syrup, popcorn and more - American cuisine is very rich in culinary recipes and varied.