Geographical Location of Canada
The geology of Canada is very diverse and can be roughly divided into six regions: the Canadian Shield, the Appalachian Range, the Lowlands, the Interior Plains, the Highlands and the Arctic Archipelago. Canada's total coastline (including islands), with coasts to the west, north and east and numerous islands to the north, is 243,042 kilometers.
Canada has several mountain ranges, including the Appalachians, Rocky Mountains, and Coast Mountains. The major waterways are the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes to the south, home to the famous Niagara Falls. The Canadian Shield, which occupies almost half of the country's territory, is considered to be the core of the North American continent. This is a mountainous area with rivers and lakes that form the basis of the country's hydroelectric power. The Great Prairies in the western part of the country have deep and very fertile soil and are the center of Canadian agriculture. The tundra in the north and areas of year-round ice form Arctic Canada.
Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, air pollution, melting glaciers and salt pollution on roads are some of the biggest environmental threats in Canada today. Oil sands mining has released toxins such as arsenic and mercury into rivers. Additionally, overfishing in the 1990s endangered several species, and fish populations are still lower than they were before 1980. Global warming means less and less of the country's marine areas are covered in ice, and wildfires could pose a threat to many species. future due to dry weather.
Brief History of Canada
The first people to inhabit what is now Canada migrated from Asia about 30,000 years ago. The ancestors of the Inuit and Native Americans later spread into the northern regions before colonization from Western Europe began in the early 17th century. The first colonies were founded by the French, and Canada has long been the scene of rivalry between France and Great Britain.
Colonial conquests and new diseases led to the death of large numbers of the indigenous population. In 1755, the Seven Years' War broke out between French and British colonists, resulting in Canada coming under British rule. The country was divided into two parts: Protestant English Upper Canada and Catholic French Lower Canada. The rebellion led to the unification of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. The British decided to establish a federal state with its own parliament, and at the same time Canada gained self-government - as Britain's first colony. In 1982, the country became fully independent, with the rights of the country's indigenous peoples recognized.
Canada became a member of the League of Nations in 1919 and took full control of its policies in 1926. In the 1931 Treaty of Westminster, Britain confirmed that its Parliament no longer had any power over Canada. The territory of Nunavut was created in 1999; the Inuit then gained self-government over one-fifth of Canada. In 2003, the indigenous population of the Tlicho region in the far northwest of the country also received expanded self-government, with increased control over natural resources and greater responsibility for health and education, among other things.
Society and Politics of Canada
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a federal state with a constitutional monarchy. Power is divided between the federal government and ten state governments, with a large degree of internal autonomy. The British monarch is the head of state, represented by governors general at the federal level and deputy governors in each of the provinces. Executive power belongs to the prime minister and the government. Parliament has legislative power and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Canada has a parliamentary system, which means that the government is based on a majority in Parliament. Government power in Canada alternates between the Liberal Party and various Conservative parties.
Canada is one of the world's most developed countries but has fallen in UN rankings in recent years due to a widening wage gap. Unemployment among the indigenous population is twice as high as among the rest of the population, and wages are significantly lower. Improving the living conditions of indigenous people and reducing disparities between rich and poor are therefore important policy objectives. Terrorism legislation has also become a controversial topic, with many believing it poses a threat to freedom of expression and legal certainty.
The French-speaking province of Quebec has long sought independence. This desire led to referendums in 1980 and 1995, but until now the territory has remained part of Canada.
From 2013 to the present, Justin Trudeau has been the Prime Minister of Canada. He is the leader of the Liberal Party of Canada.
Canada is a member of the UN and UN specialized organizations, including the World Bank and the World Trade Organization.
Economy and Trade of Canada
Canada is a prosperous country with abundant natural resources, a well-educated workforce and one of the world's most advanced science and technology sectors.
About ten percent of the world's forests are in Canada, and the country has significant mineral resources such as gold, nickel, uranium and lead. Traditionally, forestry, oil, gas and mining, and fishing have been important economic sectors, but this industry is declining in importance. The service sector has become the most important part of the economy, employing four out of five Canadians. Agriculture still plays an important role, although only two percent are employed in the industry.
Due to the relatively small domestic market, foreign trade has always been important to the Canadian economy. Mining and oil and gas production continue to generate large export earnings. The United States is by far Canada's most important trading partner, followed by China. Thanks to the North American Free Trade Agreement, trade with Mexico has gained increased importance.